dissatisfaction results from their absence. Behavioral approaches do have the advantage of being fairly easy to implement by the industry, as some of the data are already available to them (i.e., the purchase or even purchase history). Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science.13: 15 Sirgy, M, Joseph. It would be meaningless to re-test the same proposition without incorporating recent development in the satisfaction literature. (1997) Satisfaction: A behavior perspective on the consumer. The central theme in this definition is the expectancy disconfirmation paradigm and it is recognized as the cognitive response on satisfaction. To have a successful business, all firms apply some of the combination of 2 offensive and defensive strategy the offense for new customer acquisition and the defense to protect the existing customer. If management wishes to increase satisfaction on the job, it should be concerned with the nature of the work itself, the opportunities it presents for gaining status, assuming responsibility, and for achieving self-realization.
One of the most often cited definitions on job satisfaction is the one given by Spector (1979) according to whom job satisfaction has to do with the way how people feel about their job and its various aspects. Applying to the hospitality industry, there have been numerous studies that examine attributes that travellers may find important regarding customer satisfaction. (1997) Assessing the Predictive Validity of Two Methods of Measuring Self-Image Congruence. R., and Martin,. Where s the actual amount of word-of-mouth-generated business would be a worthwhile avenue of enquiry, from a practitioner point of view, the more immediate returns in terms of actual visitors or customers seem more important. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science.19:36375.